Interactions between Dietary Minerals and Reproduction in farm Animal
The production efficiency of farm animals is largely dependent on their reproductive performance, and there are interactions between reproductive performance and mineral status. Minerals are inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts and they play an important role in metabolic processes. For optimal productivity, twenty two (22) beneficial mineral elements have been identified and classified. These include copper, cobalt, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, selenium, calcium, iodine, zinc, iron, chlorine, sodium, chromium, molybdenum and among others. Studies have shown that minerals are involved in intracellular detoxification of free radicals, biosynthesis of steroids and cellular metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid. Minerals have beneficial or detrimental effects on animal physiological wellbeing, depending on its balance. Some of the consequences of inadequate (deficiencies) or excesses dietary mineral intake include delayed puberty, impaired spermatogenesis and prolonged postpartum anestrus. The mechanisms by which minerals impinge on reproduction are not completely clear, but evidence exists, that their effects are mainly exerted at the higher neural centres or hypothalamus. Therefore this paper was an attempt to review the interaction between minerals and animal reproduction. It will also review the negative effect of mineral when they are over fed. Furthermore, this review could also serve as a ready source of literature for researchers in animal nutrition and nutritional reproductive physiology.
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